nimi sama s - w


sama   P   same                    (Finnish sama, Esperanto sama, etc.)
preposition: same as, like, identical with/to
noun: identity, similarity
         -self  (reflexive)
         one another  (reciprocal)
modifier:  like, similar to. same as
              close kin to
verb t: make equal, balance         
[         compare               ]
conditional:  similarly, in the same way
[ 'x li sama y e z'  "x identifies z with y, compares z to y, reconciles z with y"  also 'x li sama e z sama y'
If y is missing, in both the transitive and intransitive cases, it is either a contextually understood reference or is 'sama', either reflexive or reciprocal (with a plural x or z).]
tpl thumb-fist in front of chest, palm facing down (both hands)

seli   N     heat               (Georgian tsxeli)
noun: heat, fire, warmth
         heat source
         chemical reaction
modifier: hot, warm, fiery
              cooked, burnt
[             intense, eager, excited]
verb t:  cook, warm up, burn
[           stir up, excite  ]
tpl wiggling hand at left shoulder, palm facing down

selo    N    skin                 (Esperanto sxelo)
noun: skin, hide, bark, shell, rind, peel, (cell) wall
          outer form
          protection, shield, safety
modifier: dermal, superficial, surface
               safe, protected.
verb t:  protect, defend
[I think it should also mean  remove the selo from, but that is aberrant: use weka e selo]
with lonoutside of]
{protection, etc. moved to     }
tpl  F hand at left elbow, palm facing back

seme    N        what?                      (Cantonese shanme)
    Who?  What? Which?
modifier: Which? What sort of? 
verb i: is what? does what? 
verb t: does what to?
Answer is a specific replacement for seme.
tpl  flat hand in front of chest, palm facing up

sewi   A    high                              (Georgian sevit)
Physical but also metaphorical for social position and the like
modifier:  high, over head, elevated, top
               superior, formal
               religious, worshiped
              { sacred. supernatural, divine}
noun:  top, overhead, height
          highest part
         {God, god}
verb i:  get up, arise
verb t:  lift, raise up
           worship, adore
with lon on, over, on top of, above
tpl 1 hand in front of chest, palm facing left, index finger pointing up

sijelo     N      body                      (Croatian tajelo)
noun:  body, physical state  [also metaphorical for collections]
modifier:  physical, bodily
[verb t:  incarnate
            lean on, fall on top of  ]
tpl  flat hand on stomach, palm facing back

sike    A    round                      (English circle)
modifier:  round, circular, spherical
               of one year
noun: circle, ball
verb t: encircle, surround
          form into a circle
          revolve around
         rotate around
         cycle through
[preposition: about, concerning  generally rejected as a calque]
tpl O hand on top of left fist, palm facing down

sin     A        new                                       (Cantonese xin)
modifier: new, fresh, young
              anew, once again
noun: more, another
verb t: renew, renovate 
tpl wiggling hand on top of left fist, palm facing left

sina    N      you                                        (Finnish sina")
noun: you    [singular and plural]
modifier: your, yours

Modification with 'mute'  or a number is occasionally disambiguation but is not basic tp.  Modification with 'suli' and the like is not basic tp and should be used only to reflect honorifics in translation where their role is relevant.
tpl 1 hand in front of chest, index finger pointing forward

sinpin    N        front                                (Cantonese)
noun:  front
         face, chest, torso {see sijelo}
         wall, vertical surface
modifier: front, facial, torsal, pectoral
with lon: in front of, before [not temporal]
[verb t:  build a wall out of, drop a wall on, set upright and other possibilities, all unrealized]
tpl L hand in front of chest, palm facing back (both hands)

sitelen     V      draw                        (Dutch schilderen)
An activity that uses hands and a stick-like object to produce a lasting mark, then activities that produce the marks however, so: write, draw, carve, photograph, video record, type, etc.
noun: writings, drawings, pictures, photographs and generally anything produced by the activity.
         representation, image
         character, letter
         the activities themselves
modifier:  produced by such an activity
[conditional: literally
                   according to authoritative records  ]
tpl F hand in front of chest, palm facing left (both hands)

sona     V      know                          (Georgian tsodna)
Anything to do with right understanding::know, know how to, plan, understand, mean [about words]
noun: knowledge, science, philosophy, any system of beliefs, wisdom, plan
         aphorism, wise advice.
modifier:  wise, intelligent, learned
modal know how to
tpl bent hand at side of forehead, palm facing left

soweli       N             beast                    (Georgian tsxoveli)
Basically, any land mammal [but see mani], broadly a cute, cuddly animal. Used also for sea and air mammals, and as a general term for all Animalia.
modifier:  animal, cute and cuddly
tpl  flat hand at left elbow, palm facing down

suli    A         big                                    (Finnish  suuri)
In most meanings of the English: tall, fat, long, wide, deep, large, heavy
                                                 adult, mature, ripe
                                                 important, significant, influential
noun: size, dimension, importance
verb t:  enlarge
tpl 2 hand at side of forehead, palm facing forward

suno      N          light                            (Esperanto suno)
                          sun, day [in both senses]
                          brightness, glow, radiance
                          light source
modifier: bright, lit, light
verb t: light, illumine
tpl bent hand at side of forehead, palm facing forward

supa     N      surface                    (Acadian surface, Esperanto surfaco, English surface)
Basically thought of as horizontal, so floor, table, chair, bed, pillow  [cf. sinpin]
                                                        place to put or rest things on
[modifier: flat, horizontal
 verb t:  flatten, plane, smooth]
tpl  flat hand in front of chest, palm facing up (both hands)

suwi     A       sweet                        (Tok Pisin swit, English sweet) 
Also generalized to pleasant and transferred to cute, adorable and fragrant .
noun: sugar, sweetener, candy, other confections
verb t:  sweeten     
tpl 2 hand at side of chin, palm facing left


tan     P        from
In a broad sense, so also by, because of , since
noun: origin, source, cause, reason, motive 
modifier: causal, motivational
[verb t: take DO from, fetch DO, rescue DO]
tpl bent hand at left elbow, palm facing back

taso    A     only                                 (Tok Pisin tasol, English that's all)
Also sole, exactly, alone
[Usage note: English is rather loose about where it puts "only": in tp, it goes immediately after what is unique and does not drift to the verb,]
[noun: hermit, recluse
          exception ]
verb t: isolate, abandon, cut off, ban
[         make an exception of  ]
conjunction: but, except that
[preposition: except ]
tpl   L hand in front of chest, palm facing down (both hands)

tawa      P          toward                               (English toward)
Also  to, in the direction of
         in order to
         {from the perspective of}
noun:  destination, target, goal
          movement, transportation, travel, transportation
          conduct, experience 
modifier: moving, mobile
verb i:  move, leave, go to
verb t:  move DO,  send

A tawa B e C: C in situation x, A does y to C, as a result C is in situation B. If C is not mentioned, it is A or a part of A. If y is mentioned it becomes main verb, and tawa B goes to the end. If x is mentioned it is at the end after tan.}
tpl bent hand in front of chest, palm facing forward

telo        N          water                          (Acadian French de l'eau)
Any liquid: soup, sauce, juice, gasoline, coffee,  etc.
modifier: liquid, flowing, wet, washed
verb t:  water, wash, moisten
tpl wiggling hand in front of chest, palm facing down (both hands)

tenpo       N        time                             (Esperanto tempo)
Both the whole and parts: moment, duration, generation
                          situation, occasion
[modifier: temporal
verb t: time    
           take time (DO of amount)     ]
tpl  F hand on top of left fist, palm facing left

toki        V       communicate                   (Tok Pisin tok, English talk)
In particular: talk, say, use language
                   inform  [? seems either intransitive or has wrong object]
                   { think [see pilin]}
noun: talk, speech, message 
         communication, information
modifier: talking, verbal, linguistic
interjection: Hello, Hi [conventional greeting]  
tpl bent hand at side of chin, palm facing left

tomo       N            building                     (Esperanto domo)
Any constructed space, particularly:  home, house, shelter, room, 
                                                        designated place [even if not structure]
modifier: built, constructed, man-made
              domestic, household
verb t:  build, construct  {apparently moved to pali}
tpl bent hand in front of chest, palm facing left (both hands = so left palm facing right)

tu           A          two                               (English two)
noun: pair, duo
verb t: double
           divide, separate, split, cut in two
tpl  2 hand in front of chest, palm facing forward

*tuli    A           three                               (prob English three)
[now tu wan or, preferably, mute


 unpa        V            sex                            (sound symbolism?  English hump?)
[This word is not proscribed in any way and so is not to be used for emphasis or strong emotions]
The primary sexual act. whatever that may be for a given organism: have sex with, copulate, pollinate, fertilize,  etc.  Also acts that simulate these actions in some way: masturbate, bugger, sodomize  etc., but without the value judgments involved.
 {be married to cf wan}
noun: sex act, sexuality
modifier: sexual, erotic
tpl 2 hand on top of left fist, palm facing down

uta            N          mouth                           (Croatian asta?)
Generally for organs of that shape or purpose across animal species.  Maybe metaphorically for the edge and opening of a hole and other things shaped like a mouth.
{lips, jaw, oral cavity}
modifier: oral
verb t: kiss  [maybe also suck]
tpl 1 hand at side of chin, palm facing back

utala        N            conflict                           (Croatian adarati) 
More precisely: contest,
                         fight, battle, war, violence, attack, blow
modifier:  violent, military, argumentative
verb t:  fight, attack, strike, hit
           argue, compete
         { challenge
            compete against, struggle against}
tpl thumb-fist at left shoulder, palm facing forward


 walo     A          white                              (Finnish valko(inen))
Also light(color) includes various shades of gray.
noun: whiteness, lightness (color)
verb t: paint white, whitewash
tpl F hand at side of forehead, palm facing down

wan      A          unit                                 (English one)
So one but less obviously: whole, alone, lonesome
noun: unit, element, particle, part, piece
verb t: unite, join together, make one, marry [conjoint or plural subject or subject and object or subject (officiant) and conjoint/ plural object]
tpl  1 hand in front of chest, palm facing forward, index finger pointing up

 waso     N        bird                                   (Acadian French oiseau)
Any flying chordate animal so bats and pterodactyl are included (and kiwis maybe not)
modifier: avian
verb i & t: fly
tpl O hand at side of chin, palm facing forward

 wawa    A        power                                (Finnish vahva)
So powerful, strong, energetic, intense, fierce
     sure, confident
noun: power, strength,speed, confidence, energy
verb t:  empower, boost, strengthen, speed up
 tpl thumb-fist on stomach, palm facing back

weka      A        away                                (Dutch weg)
                         absent, missing, far
noun:  absence, distance
[         refuse, trash]
verb t:   throw away, get rid of 
            extricate, rescue, save
preposition: except  [maybe modifier, but it requires an NP]
tpl O hand at left elbow, palm facing down

wile      M            want                               (Dutch willen)
The strong modal: a strong force (internal, external, physical, etc.) impels the subject to realize the complementary VP, so
                          need to, have to, must, ought,. should, wants, desires, is required to, ...
noun: need, want, desire, obligation, duty
modifier: required, necessary, desired, wanted
verb t:  want, need, desire, require
            chose, select 
tpl  O hand on stomach, palm facing up