Sunday, September 5, 2010


Utterance = Interjection / Vocative / Answer / Sentence
Interjection = I / NP (a)
Vocative = NP o
Answer = NP / VP / PP
Sentence =  (taso) (Cond la) (o) NP+  VP (li VP)
Cond = NP / Sentence
NP+ =  o / mi / sina / Oword li / NP- li
Oword = any word in tp except: li. la. e, o, pi, mi, sina, [en, anu, a, mu] (probably but status to be decided)  
Word = Oword / mi /sina
NP = Word / NP-
NP- =  NP Word /
            NP pi NP- /
            NP Conj NP /
            NP Num /
            NP pi PP
Conj = en / anu          
PP = XPrep NP
XPrep = Prep /
              XPrep NP
Prep =  P / poka / sama /[kepeken] (doesn't work in verb slot)  (surely there will be more)
Num =  (nanpa) Dig x
Dig = ala / wan / tu / mute / lili [luka / ale / ali]  (probably more, like the last, frowned on)  
VP = VC (e NP) x (PP)x
      = PP
      =  XM VP
XM = M /
          XM NP

The first word in NP is called noun, the words added to the right are modifiers.  The first word in VP is a verb, words added to the right are modifiers.  If the VP contains e the verb is verb t, otherwise verb i.  The NP after e is DO..

This lets in a lot of nonsense, but cutting the weirdies off is more trouble than it is worth -- until someone makes a clear case against them.

Oh yeah
o o > o

There is no rule for kin here.  It probably belongs in Group F, with one additional use.  But, again, ...
The first refinement I see is to narrow the set of NP that can go into XPrep and XM.

Saturday, September 4, 2010

Parts of Speech

This division of nimi is based primarily in how the words shift meanings as they are used in various slots, rather than on some intuition about their "natural" place (though these usually agree pretty well).  That  is, these POS tell very little about  grammatical roles the words play. .Everything here is tentative and I hope you will join in the corrections, expansions, and general working over of both these general remarks and of the specifics of various words.  I will try to collect and comment on comments as often as it seems profitable.

Group A
Principal use: modifiers (adjectives, adverbs)
As nouns: the property, something with that property
As verb i: has the property
As verb t: cause DO to be subject of verb i 

Group F
Principal use: functions: mark syntactic boundaries
No other uses

Group I
Principal use: interjections, vocal noises outside language proper, though perhaps meaningful.
As noun: the sound, the uttering of the sound
As verb i: to utter the sound, be the sound
As verb t: to utter the sound with the meaningful content DO
As modifier: given to uttering the sound, like the emotions (if any) of the sound

Group M
Principal use: modals, take VP complement in verb position (others?), placing action under condition of some sort.
As noun: the condition/condition force
As verb i = modal
As verb t: variable – see separate entries
As modifiers: under force of 

Group N
Principal use: nouns
As verb i: to be a specimen of (either literally or figuratively – caution about culture 
As verb t: to make DO subject of verb I; to apply specimen to DO (perhaps two groups)
As modifier: pertaining to (yes, that vague)

Group P
Principal use: prepositions: take NP complement in all positions (?)
As noun: general class of the complement, details at specific entry
As verb i: to be or be in the process of fulfilling the prepositional placement (special 
interps for missing complements)
As verb t: cause DO to be subject of verb i.
As modifier: given to verb i

[Group Vi
Principal use: verb i: 
As nouns: the activity
As verb t: cause DO to do activity
As modifier: given to activity] I don't think this exists separate from N and A.

Group Vt
Principal use: verb t: take e + DO
As nouns: the activity, generic class of DO
As verbs i: assume suppressed generic DO or reflexive
As modifier: given to the activity

Group X
Principal use: pronouns: nouns of a contextually determined meaning
As verb i: identification
As modifier: possessive

[As verb t: make DO belong to subject]