nimi sama a-k

Punctuation
? ends questions, including multisentence ones and nonsentential ones
    sina tan seme?  Where are you from?
    sina sona ala sona e ni: jan Mawi li unpa e jan Tan.-? Did you know that Mary is sleeping with Tom.

: used mainly with 'ni', it introduces following text which is officially the referent of that 'ni'. This following text, to the final '-' is a part of the sentence containing the 'ni' and constitutes a display.  The final punctuation - after the '-' is for that sentence.

   mi sona e ni: jan Tan li pilin pona-.  I know that Tom is happy.

' ' Surround an utterance to make it a proper adjective to some speech word, as a report or for discussion.  Also surrounds direct quotations as displays.
      nimi 'e' li nimi lili  The word "e" is a small word.
      jan li toki e toki 'mi wile weka. o mi mute li tawa'.  The man said, "I want to leave.  Let's go".
      jan li toki e ni: "mi wile tawa tomo'. The persono said "I want to go home'
      nimi mi li 'Kipo'.

!  Ends exclamations.
      a! Ouch! (or some other such)
      sina! You! (Out of all the lousy gin-joints in this lousy world look who has to come into mine, say)

,  No fixed use but available to clarify confusing constructions by indicating principal parts (end of 'pi', break between a noun phrase and a new modifier.)
     jan pi ma Asina pona, mute li tawa noka wawa, tawa telo Many men of beautiful Athens ran to the well. (as opposed to "A very beautiful Athenian ran wetly away.")
   The most common problem a comma might solve (and the corresponding break in the speech flow) is the line between VP and PP at the end of a sentence.  The significant ambiguity of 'ona li pana e sitelen tawa mi' and countless similar cases recommend this addition, but it is not regularly used.
Another, probably rare case, is when 'la' phrases group left rather than right, to indicate the end off the reverse grouping. (no known examples).
     In pu a comma is used to end a 'la' condition, placed before the 'la' (though the spoken version almost certainly has its break -- if any -- after the 'la').

"" Surround no-tp expressions in the same way as single quotes surround tp expressions.

- marks the end of a display, after the punctuation of the last sentence and before the punctuation of the matrix sentence.  New and not yet regularly used.

; Replaces period for sentences in displays
Also used sometimes to join two parts of a sentence with a restrictive relative clause, the restrictive part and the matrix, typically one containing 'ni' attached to a head noun.  It is also sometimes used  for relative clauses and similarly closely connected sentences (where we cannot use 'en' but think "and").
   jan li kama tawa lupa mi: jan ni li esun e ko pona.  The man that came to my door was selling soap.
   jan li kama lon insa pi tomo mi; soweli li moku lili e ona.  A man came into my house and the dog bit him.

.  Ends other sentences and nonsentential utterances.

A
tpl thumb-fist, palm facing back (letters displayed under slanted left  arm)

a    I    Oh!      (natural sound - every human has a sound like this used in something like this way,
                          even if not officially part of their language.)
      or any other nonverbal utterance: Ah! Ow! Oof! Ugh! ......  The exercise on expressing emotions in your oral interp book will allow you many variation in spoken language; not so much in writing.. It may be repeated for more effect:
   a a  Ah Hah!
      or other double exclamations:  Ohoh! uhuh! Oy vey! ....
   a a a  Ha ha ha!
       officially laughter [
   a a a a  Stop! Don't do that!

For the spoken forms, the junctures between repeated 'a' may be useful in interp (and indeed, the onset and coda of the single form): pauses, glottal stops, and aitches or thetas are all possibilities to be explored.  In writing, of course, none of these frills appears.]
noun:  exclamation, moan, groan, cry, ...
modifier  emotional, breathily, ...
vi    exclaim, moan, ...; utters "a"
vt   utters DO in emotional manner, with many "a"s; utters "a" to express DO 
The DO may also be a description of the emotion, e.g. 'a e  pilin pona' for "sighed contentedly" or some such.  In a similar way, the noun might receive a modifier 'a pi pilin pona' for a contented sigh, say.]
{pu now identifies/uses interchangeably with kin for both emotions and emphasis.  Not yet widely followed}

tpl: flat hand at side of chin, palm facing left (shout?, cf hieroglyph)
 あ (jp), 啊(zh)

akesi  N  toad     (Dutch hagedis "lizard")
      Actually, any amphibian or reptile (can your remember which a toad is?) from smallest tree frogs to largest dinosaur.
      Also, any small ugly (non-cute) or slimy animal (this may be culture specific).
modifier: amphibian, reptilian,
                ugly, slimy
vi:   be an amphibian, reptile

The "ugly, slimy" uses have not ocurred.  The nearest is one use as "treacherous" from Phillippine idioms.
For the most part the animals have been snakes (akesi linja), dragons (akesi waso/seli/kon), dinosaurs (akesi suli/wawa/monsuta) and turtles (various ways of saying that hey carry their homes or have hard skins or humps).

[possible development
vt:  turn DO into a reptile or amphibian, sic a reptile or amphibian on DO, maybe just rub a toad over DO.
      make DO ugly.
The move from amphibian/reptile to small and ugly is from Sonja, but might not fit with some cultural standards.  Notice, that "evil" is not part of this complex.]

 tpl 2 hand at left elbow, palm facing back

 獣 (jp), 龟 (zh) gui1

ala  A  not   (Georgian ara  არა"not")
    That as a sentence negation (modifying the verb).  In modifying NPs it can mean no, none of, not any.  In modifying other modifiers (and sometimes verb it makes the whole mean the polar opposite: 'suli ala' little, 'kepeken ala' without (the use of)
Yes/No questions are formed by inserting 'ala' between two occurrences of the verb (or other crucial expression): sina tawa ala tawa Are you going? [this is an eroded form of a compound disjunction question, but looks like a new form without any relatives.]
noun:  nothing, void, vacuum
vi: be nothing
vt: destroy DO, annihilate DO
number zero
interjection No! (answer to a question or a proposal)
[ala li ala.  Heidegger.  The nothing nothings.I have no idea what that means

tpl  flat hand at left shoulder, palm facing down

 無 (jp), 不(zh) bu2
alasa  V   hunt  (Acadian French  a la chasse  "hunting")
  hunt, forage, gather, harvest
  seek,  look for 
noun: hunting (sport)
           game (what is hunted, not 'musi')
modifier: hunting (type of animal), game (type of animal)
vi: be hunting (vt with suppressed generic DO)
    be game
   vt:  hunt DO as prey
          forage  for
 {pu has lukin for "look for" which creates paradoxes. Both are used.}

tpl 1 hand at left shoulder, palm facing back

 探 (jp)

ale/ ali   A   all    (Grmic alle, "all")
    Also each, any, every, all of, the whole of;  complete
     abundant
noun:  Everything, the World/Universe, Life      ale li pona
           abundance
vi:  be everything, etc.
     be complete
[vt: make DO one with everything  (really good guru)
    complete DO]
{One pu attempt to deal with the number problem gave this the value 100 which creates immediate ambiguities.  It. is used , however, in desperation.}

tpl: wiggling both hands in front of chest, palms facing forward

 全 (jp), 全 (zh) quan2


anpa  N  underside   (Acadian en bas "below")
     Also   basement, lower levels, bottom  (but not "butt, bum" which seems to be 'monsi')
              defeat
              fall, descent
modifier: below, low, underneath, deep (maybe)
vi: be below/ underneath / underground / low / deep
     be defeated, be subservient 
     fall, go down
vt:   fell
      defeat
      enslave
      lower
Common noun with Ps to indicate a position below the following NP (this compound requires 'pi' if what follows is more than one words)
{latest official A bowing down, humble, lowly dependent.  This meaning is now at noka.  This move. has not been widely followed}
tpl  bent hand in front of chest, palm facing down

ante  A   different    (Germanic ander "other")
      What different from with 'tan'.  In what respect, not worked out.
      Also foreign  and strange (unfamiliar  or unknown), but not peculiar or odd. (see nasa)
      {latest official stresses altered, changed ---i.e., different from before, rather than different from others}
noun: difference, strangeness, etc.
          foreigner, stranger,
vi: be different
     be foreign, a stranger
vt   change / alter DO ( 'tawa' for final state)   
cond:  otherwise, on the other hand
tpl bent hand on top of left fist, palm facing left

anu   F   or
     Goes anywhere 'en' can go but also between VPs in place of 'li' and DOs in place of 'e'.  Maybe even between sentences.
      Officially, any 'anu' sentence can be taken as a question "Which alternative?"  In writing I suppose this is marked by a question mark.  No examples so far.


[Possible extension is to the general notion of choice with a noun for the action, modifiers for the chosen and for sequences and perhaps for picky, verbs for choosing from ('tan') a pool and so on..  The consequences of doing this for  intelligibility have not been examined,]
tplL hand in front of chest, palm facing down

[apeja V(?)  much draft Talk but not in official list:
- to single out - expose ; to reveale the guilt or wrongdoing of - to attack non-physically (verbally attack) - to expose to shame blame to fault accuse to cause to feel shame to dishonour, disgrace a painful emotion resulting from an awareness of having done something dishonourable, unworthy, degrading, etc.
to embarass
barb = cutting remark
  1. shame
  2. disgrace
  3. stigma
  4. discredit
  5. ignominy
  6. dishonor
  7. reproach
  8. indignity
  9. mortification
 10. obloquy

- to single out
- expose ; to reveale the guilt or wrongdoing of
- to attack non-physically (verbally attack)
- to expose to shame
blame
to fault
accuse
to cause to feel shame
to dishonour, disgrace
a painful emotion resulting from an awareness of having done something dishonourable, unworthy, degrading, etc.
to embarass
barb = cutting remark
   1. shame
   2. disgrace
   3. stigma
   4. discredit
   5. ignominy
   6. dishonor
   7. reproach
   8. indignity
   9. mortification
  10. obloquy
== compare with ==
to teach? show? demonstrate? indicate? (lawa tawa)
No usage found.
Fairly clearly not a concept that fits well with tp ethos.]


awen  M  continue        (Dutch houden)
      keep on
noun: inertia
         continuity, continuum
         preserves, canned goods
         stay
         wait
modifier: continuing, continuous, perpetual, 
               steady
               patient
               permanent
               preserved, saved
              reliable
vi:  be any of the above
       be waiting 
vt:  keep DO. preserve DO
     anchor / stabilize DO
     wait for DO


[It would be nice to work this into some conditional phrases about while or during some even or period of time, but nothing of this sort has worked out yet.]
{latest official has waiting, staying, kept, protected, enduring, safe  cf. selo}
tpl  L hand at left shoulder, palm facing back


E
tpl flat hand, palm facing back

e  F   marks beginning of DO
May be repeated with new NPs indefinitely.
tpl flat hand in front of chest, palm facing down

en  F  and    (Dutch en)
Mixed "and" between just about any two parallel constituents; logical "and" everywhere but between VPs and DO's (repeated initiators).
[Something like the case for 'anu', here with the notion of addition. Not developed.]
{latest mentioned something about pi but not developed}
tpl  L hand on top of left fist, palm facing down

esun  N  trade
      Basic notion is an exchange of goods swap. Hence an event where that goes on a lot, indeed the event is designed for it:market.  Then a permanent place for that sort of things, now, probably, changed to a money system: shop, store on up to mall.  Then generalized to any commercial enterprise: business, trade.
modifier: pertaining to any of the above.
              marketable
              do business
vi: be any of the above
vt  buy, sell DO
[Yes, but it is not clear how to say which.  The center of the transaction -- the object, not the cash -- is presumably the DO and the cash gets hooked on with a PP.  But English uses the same PP for both transactions "For $X"; now we have to make the distinction with the PP instead of the verb.  Sonja says the difference is between 'tan and 'tawa', but that doesn't help much, since a good case can be made for either one going either way.  <later> Unless the third thing is not the money but the other trader; then you buy tan and sell tawa.  I suppose the money comes in with 'kepeken' Thoughts?]
tpl bent hand in front of chest, palm facing up (both hands) (offering)

I
tpl  1 hand, palm facing down (also j)
ijo  N  thing        (Esper. io)
      Basically physical object, but expanded to include abstractions, thought, and so on, especially topic.
{phenomenon, matter}
Pronominally as something, anything and as informal anaphora for inanimates.
[very little development, so modifier usage and various verbs not specified., though maybe
vt: objectify DO  both in the feminist sense and in the Quinean.

'toki e ijo soweli' = "talk about animals" and similarly with any other subject matter and any other verb that takes "about x"]
tpl thumb-fist in front of chest, palm facing down, thumb pointing left

ike  A  bad                (Finnish  iiki)
     Opposite of 'pona' in moral and practical sense,  Anything I don't like but that does not disgust me.
     {nonessential, irrelevant}
noun:  evil, badness generally 
          complexity
vi:  be bad, evil, 
      be complex
vt:  make DO bad, complex
      spoil.
interj:  Too bad!  Sorry! Bummer! etc.
           Bad!  (scold)
cond:  unfortunately
tpl thumb-fist in front of chest, palm facing forward


*iki   X  former anaphoric pronoun, now 'ona'




ilo   N   tool     (Esper, -ilo)
      Particularly, it seems (or maybe just be cause we use them so much) machine, electronic device, but it retains the general sense: aid.  (for: 'tawa')
modifier:  useful
vi:  be a tool
     be useful
vt:  use DO (as a tool). 
tpl thumb-fist on top of left fist, palm facing up

insa  N  insides   (Eng insides via Tok Pisin)
     So  guts, stomach, heart
           center
           middle
          interior world, inner life
         {content}
modifier: visceral, GI and cardio
              central
               interior
vi:  be any of above.
[vt:  ingest, swallow, absorb, incorporate]
    Common with P as a place in  or into which, needs 'pi'.
tpl L hand on stomach, palm facing back

J
tpl see i

jaki  A  dirty    (Eng yucky)
        With all the notions of  impure, polluted, vile. disgusting, filthy, gross, tabu, tref. Probably also obscene, sordid, lurid, debauching ....
noun:  dirt, garbage, pollution, porno, debauchery, obscenity
vi: be ---
vt: dirty (make DO dirty), pollute.
interj:  Eew!  Yucky! Gross! [Probably the strongest tp swear word because it embodies all the mention of bodily functions and related taboo subjects  -- which may vary culturally,. of course, but always come in with this word]
tpl thumb-fist at side of chin, palm facing forward


jan  N  human being        (Cantonese jan)
     Actually, basically, great ape, usually specified to the above but also generalized to person (anything in the context that performs humanlike acts).  Also, in appropriate contexts,  member, inhabitant, etc.  Pronoun as someone, anyone, and anaphoric for persons.
modifier: human
              personal
              soneone's, anyone's
vi: be ---
vt:  humanize, personalize, personify
tpl 2 hand at left shoulder, palm facing back




jelo   A   yellow                  (Eng, yellow)
     Actually a wider color than the English, running into the light browns in one direction, the light greens in another.  So far no culturally laden terms have been absorbed into this.
noun: the color
vi: be ---
vt: color DO yellow.
tpl F hand on stomach, palm facing down


jo   V    have           (Cantonese ?)
        Covering temporary possession, inalienable possession, legal ownership, and whatever you have.  But also  contain, bear (as, e.g., silver on the table).  No sense of obligation connected with this (see 'wile').
         {hold, carry}
noun: possession (nine points of the law), ownership and related words for other cases
         possessions, property 
         contents
modifier: owned, private
              owner('s)
vi: be ---
tpl bent hand on top of left fist, palm facing up


K
tpl  bent hand, palm facing down

kala   N   fish          (Finnish kala)
     Any animal that lives (almost) entirely in water, so from at least molluscs and jellyfish and other small but visible sea creatures to whales and delphids.  Science, in a word, be damned.  Of course, many compounds to fit different environments.  No cultural baggage.
modifier: fishy
vi: be ---
[vt:  I would like, of course, to make this be the verb for catching fish or, at least, trying to, but it just doesn't work out.  I suspect tpers alasa  fish as much as deer.  So, I got nothing here.]
tpl flat hand at left elbow, palm facing back (looks like?)

kalama   N   noise        (Croatian galama, Eng clamor)
        Any sound, really, whether musical or cacophonous, soft or loud .  It also includes means of making sound,. playing an instrument, voice and even snore.
        {recite}
modifier:  sonic, noisy
               vocal
vi: be ---
    make a sound
vt: make DO (a sound)
    play DO (an instrument)
    sound DO
tpl wiggling hand at side of chin, palm facing left


kama   M     come              (Tok Pisin kamap < Eng  come up)
     From become to happen (to) to arrive (at: 'tawa') to future tense. Also start (before even 'open'?), manage to, succeed in.
noun: future.  
        event, occurrence
        arrival
        becoming
       beginning
       outcome
modifier:  future
               arriving
              eventful
              inchoative / initiating
              developing
va: modal and above
      occur
vt.   make DO happen
       summon / bring / fetch / carry DO
[Many words take on special meanings when following 'kama']
tpl bent hand in front of chest, palm facing back

* kan  P with. among       now 'poka'

*kapa   N  extrusion, hill, button   now 'nena

*kapesi  A  brown, gray     now covered by 'pimeja'


kasi  N   plant             (Finn kasvi)
     Every kind: herb, tree, bush, vegetable,... 
     leaf, ...
modifier: botanical
              vegetal
              herbal
va:  be ----
vt.  plant DO ('tawa' or 'lon' depending)
tpl F hand on top of left fist, palm facing down


ken  M   can       (Tok Pisin ken < Eng can)
    Weak modal "no powerful force against" can, may, be able to, be allowed / permitted to, free to, possible
noun:   ability
           rights
           permission
           power (of office or status)
modifier:  able / capable
               rightful
               legal / licit / legitimate
              allowed
               possible
va:  be ---
vt: enable / empower DO
     delegate to DO
     permit DO
     make possible
cond:  maybe, possibly
tpl thumb-fist at left shoulder, palm facing back


kepeken   V   use                      (Dutch gebruiken)
      Purpose 'tawa'
noun: use, usage
         tool
modifier: useful
              handy
va: be ---
prep:  with (tool), by means of, {using}
[A virtual duplicate of  'ilo']

Note that, although 'kepeken' has "always" been a preposition, it does not take a noun complement when used as a verb, but rather requires the 'e' for a direct object. 
{Cancel that,  kepeken is latestly officially a preposition, so DOES take a noun complement and NOT e
This seems to call for a general treatment with all slot filled:
x li kepeken y e z
x uses y on z/ for z
with y understood from context or unimportant, x works on/at z
with z suppressed x uses y
with y and z both suppressed, x is handy or useful
if the action involved is more detailed, that detail becomes the main verb and 'kepeken y' becomes a PP}
tpl L hand on top of left fist, palm facing left  


*kijetasantakalu  N   pangolin, kinkjou, any Procyonidae, but apparently also armadillo

(Fin;kierteishäntäkarhu "kinkajou" ?)


Presumably and April Fools' Day joke.  Not on any subesequent lists.



kili   N        fruit                   (Georgian xili)
     Seeds and seed carriers of kasi, includes mushrooms
modifier:  fruit(y)
              fruitful, fertile
va:  be ...
[maybe bear fruit, be fruitful, ripen
vt.  harvest
      pollinate
     ripen
all possibilities, none definitely in use.]
tpl  thumb-fist at side of chin, palm facing left



kin             indeed           (Finnish kin)
    Emphasizes the word before it.
    also, too, even  depending on context.
cond:  moreover, in addition, likewise
{in latest replaced by a}


kipisi    V   cut
noun:  cut
         cutting
         portion, fraction, part
modifier: partial, incomplete
             divided, cut
{not in latest.  maybe back to tu}


kiwen    A     hard         (Finnish kivi, kiven)
       Not yielding to impact, not "difficult"
      Also, solid, stone-like, metallic, mineral
noun:  stone, rock, mineral, metal
va: be ...
vt:  stone (throw stones at) DO
     solidify, gel, thicken DO
thumb-fist on top of left fist, palm facing down  


ko     N       goo                (Cantonese gou2  膏 "paste")
       Any semi-solid or squishy stuff: paste, powder, gum, gelatin, dust, dough, clay
modifier: soft, squishy, colloidal,powdery, ...
va: be ...
vt:  pulverize / grind DO, reduce DO to a paste/powder
[    affix DO [to tawa]  with glue, glue DO
     dust DO [with kepeken] ? ]
tpl bent hand on stomach, palm facing down

kon     N      air                (Chinese      )
        Any gaseous substance: breath, gas [not -oline], wind
                                            odor, scent, smell
                                            spirit, soul
                                            essence
                                             unseen agent
                                             experiential life
modifier:  airy, gaseous, windy
               odoriferous
               etheral
               spiritual, soulful
va:   be ...
        breathe
[vt:  inflate DO
       gasify / sublime / vaporize DO
       breathe in DO]
tpl wiggling hand in front of chest, palm facing left

kule     N     color             (Acadian French couleur)
         Related words like tint
         paint, ...
modifier:  colorful, colored, painted
va:  be ...
vt:  color / paint DO
tpl F hand in front of chest, palm facing left


kulupu     N      group          (Tongan kulupu < English group)
           Any gathering of things physically or mentally:  community, people, society, nation, tribe, clan, set, company, meeting, mob, gang, ...
modifier: communal, public, national, ...
va:  be ...
vt:   call together / assemble / form / convene DO
 [      gang up on / mob / storm  DO ?]
tpl 2 hand at left shoulder, palm facing down

kute    V        hear                (Acadian French acouter)
           listen to
          {obey}
noun:  hearing [sense], listening.
         [gossip, what heard ?]
         {ear}
modifier:  auditory, hearing, listening
va: be ...
[cond by hearsay ?]
tpl thumb-fist at side of forehead, palm facing left