nimi sama l - p

L
tpl L hand, palm facing back
la      F                           (a priori, said to be from Esperanto la,which has different purpose)
marks the end of a condition: temporal location, duration, rhetorical and causal connections, emotions underlying utterance, sources of information presented,... and antecedents of conditional sentences.
tpl bent hand in front of chest, palm facing left

lape   M   asleep              (Dutch slapen)
   Also unconscious, drugged, resting 
noun:  sleep, unconsciousness, rest
verb t:  put DO to sleep, knock DO out
tpl flat hand at side of forehead, palm facing left


laso   M    blue                 (Welsh glas)
Actually any color between sky blue and plant green: blue-green, green, blue, turquoise, aqua, cyan, sea green
noun: blue, green, etc.
verb t: color/paint DO blue-

Neither "sad" nor "smutty" are tied to this word
tpl F hand at left elbow, palm facing down


lawa   N     head            (Croatian glava)
   Everything above the shoulders.  Then metaphorically
                  chief, leader, ruler
                  mind 
                  law
                  direction
modifier: pertaining to head
              chief, main
              mental
              legal, lawful
              directive
verb t:    lead / direct / control /rule / guide / steer DO
             show DO / point DO to (tawa)
[            enact / decree / legislateDO
             think about / ponder DO  ?]
tpl flat hand at side of forehead, palm facing forward

*leko   N   stair, square   (replaced  by phrases as needed)


len   N   cloth                    (Acadian French linge)
  fabric  generally, particularly (items of) clothing but anything made of cloth in a broad sense
{privacy}
modifier: cloth
              dressed / clothed
              arrayed / costumed / dressed up 
verb t: wear / be dressed in DO
           dress DO (put on or provide clothes for)
tpl bent hand at left shoulder, palm facing back


lete   M     cold              (Acadian French frete)
     also uncooked, raw and (Boreacentrically) North
noun: cold
         North
verb t: cool / chill / freeze DO  
tpl wiggling hand at left elbow, palm facing down
li    F                     (Esperanto li)
Marks the end of the subject or the beginning of a new predicate conjoined to the previous one.
tpl flat hand in front of chest, palm facing left
lili   M      small         (Tok Pisin liklik)
  Antonym of both mute and suli  so small in any dimensionshort, thin, light weight, narrow, brief but also few and
young, immature
noun:  smallness (and all the particular forms)
          youth, immaturity
          a bit
verb t:  lessen / diminish / shrink / reduce DO
tpl 2 hand at side of chin, palm facing forward 


linja   N     string             (Finnish linja)
  Any long, thin, floppy thing e.g.
rope thread, cord, chain, spaghetti, hair
Also connection, relationship
modifier:  stringy
              hairy
[verb t:   tie
             bind, tie up
             connect]
tpl  1 hand at side of forehead, palm facing left 


lipu   N     sheet                (Finnish  lippu)
    Any flat bendable thing. e.g.
leaf, card, ticket, paper, page
hence, chalkily,
           webpage. website
modifier: flat,
              flexible
              paper, cardboard
              pertaining to the web
[verb t:  paper, cover with or wrap in paper or such
            mulch, shred           ] 
tpl flat hand on top of left fist, palm facing up

loje       M      red              (Dutch rood, rooie)
Any of a wide range of colors clearly reddish 
noun:  red thing
          color red
[verb t: color red (paint, etc.)]
tpl F hand at side of chin, palm facing left

lon     P     at             (Tok Pisin long)
Also in, on for general location in a large space.  
So far, only spatial (in unchallenged works), temporal suggested  but deferred to 'la' constructions
{Cancel that: lon tenpo x is equivalent to tenpo x la}
noun: location, address
          situation
         reality, truth, existence  (without complementary NP)
modifier: real, true, existing, correct, genuine,...
              present (being here) 
             awake
verb t:   place in/at/on (with NP -- otherwise tawa)

             bring to
            correct, verify (without NP)
            bring into existence, create
            awaken DO
{
A lon B [e C]: A does x [to C,as a result] C is in situation B. If Cis not mentioned, it is A. If B is not mentioned, it is reality, existence, truth. If x is mentioned it becomes the main verb and lon B goes to the end.
}
tpl  1 hand on top of left fist, palm facing down 

luka      N         arm               (Croatian raka)
Specifically foreleg on non-primates, wing on  birds and the like
Also hand and thus (though frowned on) five.
{no longer frowned on}
tactile organ wherever located
modifier:        five
                    pertaining to arm, hand,   foreleg, wing
[verb t.        embrace, shake hands with, greet 
                   massage
                   touch, feel]
tpl flat hand in front of chest, palm facing forward    

lukin    V        look                   (Tok Pisin lukim = English look him)
Actually  look at,so see, watch, read; be aware of, attend to, care for; show DO (tawa)
              { seek, look for}
noun:             vision, sight [faculty]
                     sight [what seen]
                     attention
                     {eye, replaces or merges with oko}
modifier         visual
                     alert
                     attentive 
modal           try, work at

[condition:      obviously, clearly, apparently ?]

tpl 2 hand in front of chest, palm facing down

lupa          N                hole                      (Lojban clupa)
Any orifice: window,  door, goal [in various sports]
[modifier:    hollow
                  spongy, worm-eaten
verb t:        bore, dig into ]
tpl O hand in front of chest, palm facing left


M 
tpl wiggling hand, palm facing back

ma        N          land                     (Finnish maa)
In all senses:   ground, dirt, soil, earth
                      real property
                      country, nation, region
                      Earth  (maybe any planet one happens to live on)
                    {outdoors}
modifier:         dirty, grimy, soiled [literal]
                      pertaining  to soil
                     national, regional, territorial, terrestrial
[verb t:           dirty, soil DO
                     found a nation (DO) ?]
tpl flat hand in front of chest, palm facing down (both hands)

*majuna  A  old  (Esperanto maljuna unyoung)

mama        N           parent                (Georgian  mama)
So also mother, father alone or with gender words
{creator, caretaker, sustainer, ancestor, originator}
modifier:      parental, maternal, paternal, motherly, fatherly
[verb t:       parent, raise/rear, care for DO (child)  ]
tpl  2 hand on stomach, palm facing down




mani       N          money                 (English money)
Generally, any form of wealth: currency, capital  but also flocks
          hence       herd animals (sheep, goats, cows, camels, llamas,...)
modifier:            monetary, financial
 [                       herdlike (docile, easily led, etc.) 
verb t:             give money to, pay, donate to
                       make money from, exploit, dun
                      domesticate]
tpl  thumb-fist at left elbow, palm facing back




meli      N         female                    (Tok Pisin meri = English Mary)
For any species in which it is meaningful, particularly humans:
                        woman, wife, girl, girlfriend
modifier:           feminine, womanly, female
[verb t:              pander for 
                       perform mtf surgery on, castrate]
tpl  2 hand on stomach, palm facing back




mi        X          I                               (Esperanto mi, English me)
First person pronoun, singular and plural, so also
                        me, we, us
modifier           my, mine, our, ours
[verb t:             claim, appropriate   ]
conditional:       in my opinion, from my point of view

Modification with 'mute' or a number is not forbidden and occasionally disambiguating, but not basic tp.  Modification with 'lili' and the like is legal but not basic tp and not disambiguating.
tpl thumb-fist in front of chest, palm facing down, thumb pointing back


mije     N          male                           (Finnish mies)
For any species in which it is meaningful, but particularly human:
                         man, boy, husband, boyfriend
modifier:            male, manly, masculine
[verb t:              perform ftm procedures on ]
tpl  2 hand on top of left fist, palm facing left




moku      V        eat                         (Japanese mogu mogu)
Taking things in through the mouth: drink, swallow, ingest, consume, ...
noun:                 food, meal, drink
                         eating, drinking
modifier:             eating 
                          edible, food
tpl O hand at side of chin, palm facing back


moli      A         dead                         (Acadian French mourir)
Also,  lethal, fatal, deadly
noun:                 death, dead being
verb t:              kill, murder, execute, etc.
tpl O hand at side of chin, palm facing back




monsi    N       back                          (Acadian French mon tchu = French mon cul)
Also, behind, backside, rear  and thus particularly
         butt, ass
modifier:          rear, behind, in back
[verb t:            moon                       ]
tpl L hand in front of chest, palm facing forward

monsuta      V             fear
That is be afraid of, be frightened by
noun: fear, fright, terror etc.
         monster, bogeyman [anything that inspires fear]
modifier: fearful, afraid, frightened    

but also used in opposite polarity  frighten, cause to fear
                                                        frightening

{Not in latest list}




mu        I         [animal noise]               (sound symbolism)
Cute animal noises like  baa, moo, arf, meow, ...
[noun:             such a noise
modifier:        making such a noise
verb t:            making such a noise to convey DO
                     talking nonsense in saying DO   
maybe with modifiers to explain the kind of animal and noise]
tpl  wiggling hand at side of chin, palm facing down




mun     N        moon                           (English moon)
Any lesser light in the sky:  planet, star, satellite 
 modifier:          lunar
                        stellar
[                       extraterrestrial  
verb t:               launch into space                ]
tpl  O hand at side of forehead, palm facing left


musi       N        play                            (Esperanto amuzi)
                          game, recreation. entertainment, fun
                          art
modifier:             amusing, entertaining, recreational, fun
                          artful, artistic, musical
                           frivolous, playful
verb i:                have fun, play, exercise
verb t:                 entertain, amuse, play with
tpl wiggling hand at side of forehead, palm facing left


mute       A           much                         (Esperanto multe)
Also                      several, many,  numerous, abundant
                             very  *comparative
                              20 according to one disastrous usage

noun:                     a lot, multitude
                             quantity
                              a lot
verb t:                   increase, multiply, augment, nourish, improve
tpl flat hand in front of chest, palm facing forward (both hands)




N
tpl wiggling hand, palm facing down

namako      N      trimming
Something good added on: accessory, seasoning, lagniappe
modifier:  accessory, spicy
verb t:     excite, stimulate     
               decorate
{not in latest list}

nanpa         N      number                  (Tok Pisin namba = English number)
Cardinal , also -th  to introduce ordinals
modifier: numeral, numeric, dealing with numbers
verb t:     enumerate, count

'nanpa' followed by a numerical expression does not require 'pi' as a modifier.
tpl 2 hand in front of chest, palm facing back


nasa           A      crazy                      (Tok Pisin nasau)
Any thing unusual, abnormal, strange, foolish, stupid, silly, weird, drunken, unconventional
noun:       strangeness,  stupidity, drunkenness, etc.
verb t:      confuse, scramble, get drunk, etc.
tpl thumb-fist at side of forehead, palm facing forward


nasin         N      way                         (Croatian nacin)
In many senses: road, path, street, etc.
                         system, program, doctrine, course of action, method
                         custom, habit, manner 
modifier:            systematic, habitual, customary, doctrinal, doctrinaire 
                         pertaining to roads 
[verb t:              clear a path through
                         indoctrinate, enculturate
                         plan, plot, program 
                        adopt/follow (a plan, program, way of life)  ]
tpl flat hand in front of chest, palm facing left (both hands - so left palm faces right)


nena         N        bump                       (Finnish nena)
Anything that sticks out from a surface: hill, mountain, 
                                                           nose, breast 
                                                           button
[modifier:    bumpy, pertaining to or like any  of the nouns 
verb t:         make DO bumpy, roughen, impousse'
                  rub, sand, 
                  sting, inoculate,  ]
tpl  bent hand on top of left fist, palm facing down




ni           X          this                             (Cantonese ni)
Deictic, so also that, yonder 
In particular, used pronominally to refer to proximate sentence or its event to create the effect of subordinate clauses.
tpl  L hand at side of chin, palm facing back




nimi      N       word                                 (Finnish nimi)
In particular, name.  phrase
May take quoted word as modifier
modifier: verbal, nominal
verb t:    call / name DO  [modifier indicates name, often by quoting it, or name later with 'kepeken'.
tpl  nothing under left slanted forearm




noka    N      leg                                (Croatian naga)
Particularly hindleg on non-primates
Also foot
modifier:  pertaining to legs or feet
{lower, bottom  earlier anpa
[verb t: kick    ]
[not  on the latest official word list, possibly accidentally.  A suggestion was abroad to replace it with 'luka anpa'.  This has been ignored.] {Cancel this, opposite now official}
tpl flat hand in front of chest, palm facing back

O
tpl O hand, palm facing down
    
o        X           O                      (Georgian o, Esperanto ho, English O)
After NP to mark it as vocative
Before VP to mark it as imperative
Before sentence to mark it as optative 
tpl wiggling hand in front of chest, palm facing down


oko       N         eye                   (Croatian ako)
modifier:  optical, pertaining to eyes
[Obvious verbs t covered by 'lukin']
{not in latest list; replaced by lukin}


olin      V         love                    (Croatian volim)
Only between persons (not extreme liking for objects) 
         {respect, have compassion for, show affection to}
noun: love
         beloved
modifier:   loved, loving, in love
tpl wiggling hand on stomach, palm facing back


ona     X        it                       (Croatian ona "she"))
Third personal pronoun: he, she, they, him, her, them (refers back to a noun phrase)
modifier:  his, hers, theirs, its
[condition: he/she/they say  with specific reference.
Despite its similarity to (and possible derivation from) Fr on, Eo oni or En one, this is not an indefinte pronoun but strictly anaphoric.  "they say" is probably jan la, if done this way at all.]

Modification with 'mute' or a number and with 'mije'. 'meli' or 'ijo' is occasionally disambiguating but is not basic tp.
tpl 1 hand in front of chest, index finger pointing left (palm facing back, I suppose)

open          M          open       (Tok Pisin, English open)
More accurately start, begin, commence, initiate,...  
noun:  start, beginning, opening 
modifier: initial, starting, opening
verb t: open, turn on, start up
condition: to begin with, firstly,
               in the beginning 
tpl O hand at left shoulder, palm facing down

 P
tpl F hand, palm facing down      

pakala    V        harm         (Tok Pisin bagarap < English bugger up)
All the various ways and degrees of harm: damage, destroy, break, ruin, spoil, hurt, injure, ...
but also doing a bad job: err, botch, screw/fuck up, make a mistake, ... (DO, the job, often suppressed)
{fail at}
noun: destruction, ruin, disaster, damage, pain, ...
         error, mistake, screw-up, ...
modifier:  destructive, ruinous, ...
               destroyed, ruined, broken, botched, ...
               erroneous, mistaken, ...
interjection: general cuss word of frustration, grief, etc.: Damn!  Fuck!  Shit! 
tpl thumb-fist on top of left fist, palm facing forward


[pake  V   block (as a road).
A suggestion abroad that i means stop without the suggestion of completion.
One occurrence, in a draft note on nasin.]


pali      V            make               (Esperanto fari)
As in European languages, general but not (generally)  supplementary
Specifically:  create, build, care for, cultivate, prepare
 Generally:  work on/at,  do
noun: act, action, deed, activity, function (habit?) cultivation, work, project
         job, trade, profession 
modifier:  active, creative, working, functioning, caring, busy
[modal: habitual action: in the habit of, accustomed to ?]
tpl thumb-fist on top of left fist, palm facing left

palisa     N          rod                 (Croatian  palica)
Long, thin, generally hard thing: stick, branch, phallus. dildo
modifier: long/tall and thin. 
[            tumescent
verb t:  stretch
           beat
           sexually arouse  ]
tpl   O hand on top of left fist, palm facing left


pan      N         bread                 (? French pain, Esperanto pano)
Any baked goods, but also the ingredient: grain (including any specific), flour
[modifier: baked, made of bread
               containing grain, floury
verb t: bake, coat with flour
          mill, grind                         ]
tpl  F hand at side of chin, palm facing back



pana       V         emit
Action moving outward from subject: give, send, release, transfer, transmit, (?cause, place, exchange, sell/)[shoot?] {put}
noun:  giving, sending, release, transfer, emission, transmission
          gift, messenger/representative/ambassador, donation
          radiation
modifier: generous, radioactive
tpl wiggling hand in front of chest, palm facing up

 *pasi      A      good, easy               (now pona)




*pata      N       sibling                     (now jan sama)




pi            F       of                             (Tok Pisin bilong < English belong)
Introduces a right grouped unit within a noun phrase (requires at least two words after).


Required before prepositional phrase modifying a noun phrase, that is, anywhere but at the end of a sentence modifying the whole (or the main verb).
tpl  O hand in front of chest, palm facing forward
  

pilin        V      feel                           (Tok Pisin pilim > English feel him; English feeling)
            touch, caress, fondle, ...
            think, opine,                         (generally next sentence as object, "about" problem)
            feel (a way, emotion)            (apparently intransitive with adjective complement of the 
                                                           way, emotion)    
noun:  thought, emotion, texture, opinion       
modifier:  thoughtful, emotional
               tactile
{now primarily adjective for how feel, emotion,  noun heart both emotional and physical}
tpl F hand on stomach, palm facing back

 pimeja     A          dark                      (Finnish pimea)
Also, specifically, black
noun:  darkness, shadow, blackness
verb:  darken, blacken
tpl  F hand at left shoulder, palm facing down


pini          M          end                          (Tok Pisin  pinis, Acadian French fini)
Also       finish
              close
              turn off, extinguish
noun:  end, tip, point, completion
modifier: done, finished, completed, ended, closed
              past
              ago
(What is "stop", then - cease with the possibility of starting up again?)
tpl O hand at left shoulder, palm facing up



pipi        N       bug                              (Acadian French bibitte)
The range of invertebrates, at least visible ones (maybe including computer bugs though those are strictly pakala).
modifier:  insect, invertebrate, spider [? annoying
verb:   expose to bugs
          annoy?  ]
tpl  1 hand at left elbow, palm facing back


*po      A             four                         (English four, now tutu)






poka    N           side                          (Croatian baka)
                  hip, ribs
                  proximity, partisanship
modifier:     near, next to, neighboring, almost, more than?
                  partisan
[verb:   approach, draw in, win over, convert ]
preposition: with (accompanying)
{preposition in doubt}
tpl L hand at left elbow, palm facing back

poki       N      container                    ( Tok Pisin bokis < English box)
 Any specific one: box, bag, bowl, cup, can, ..., storage
[modifier: stored, canned, packaged, in a container,
                pertaining to a container or of a certain type.
                restricted, limited, confined
                secure
verb:  put into a container, store, can, pack]
tpl  O hand in front of chest, palm facing down


pona     A           good                       (Esperanto bona)
Possessing any tp virtue: easy, simple, healthy, positive, nice, calm, ...., preaceful
noun: any tp virtue: ease, simplicity, health, calmness, ...
                              value
verb:  make good, improve, cure, fix, simplify, quiet, clean, ...
[evaluate]
 interjection:  Good! Great!, Cool!, Yay!, ...
                     Thank you, Thanks
condition: fortunately, happily, ...
tpl  thumb-fist in front of chest, palm facing left, thumb pointing up

 *powe           unreal, false, pretend , deceive        (now lon ala, toki ike)


pu                        

[given as a word, but never explained.  called a punctuation, "a sort of virgule."  Possibly replaces : in 'ni:' expressions so generally to for indirect quotations and, possibly, restrictive relative clauses (a needed addition, since nothing in speech corresponds to this punctuation).
At one point said to mean "a section of text", probably for a sura of the Koran.]
 A relating to the Toki Pona book}
 also used as a noun to refer to that book (possibly derogatorily).
tpl wiggling hand on top of left fist, palm facing up









No comments:

Post a Comment